Physical medicine


Human movement is a result of a complex interplay between several systems within our body. Two medical specialties diagnose and treat the disease of the musculoskeletal system. Physiatrists are specialists for physical therapy and orthopaedics are surgeons that perform operations on our bones and joints. Often perceived as the diseases of the old age and professional sport, these ailments can occur at any age. And in fact, orthopaedics have historically been devoted to treating children with spine and limb deformities. In case you experience any symptoms resembling those described below, contact your personal physician. A physiatrist or an orthopaedics may eventually manage your diagnosis or therapy.


A major health problem which affects over 200 million individuals worldwide and causes 9 million new bone fractures every year, osteoporosis affects the entire skeleton rather than individual bones and joints. It results from the decrease in bone mineral density, which leads to weak and brittle bones. Osteoporosis is very rarely diagnosed until a bone fracture occurs. Even though osteoporosis is perceived as a female disease, it frequently affects men as well – in Italy, female-to-male ratio of cases stands at 3,5:1. It is possible to mitigate the risk and the effects of osteoporosis with changes in diet and lifestyle.

Degenerative joint disease

Going under the names osteoarthritis and “wear-and-tear” arthritis, it affects over half of the population over 65 years of age, but it can also occur in younger groups. Patients may experience symptoms of pain, stifness, limited range of motion and loss of flexibility, most frequently in the knee or the hip. Degenerative bone disease develops when the cartilage that lines the end of each bone in our joints deteriotes. The cartilage provides a smooth, gliding surface for joint motion. Damage to the cartilage therefore causes pain, swelling and the other symptoms listed above.