Hematology is a branch of internal medicine that deals with the physiology, pathology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood-related disorders. Hematologists focus largely on lymphatic organs and bone marrow and may diagnose blood count irregularities or platelet irregularities. Hematologists treat organs that are fed by blood cells, including the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and lymphoid tissue.


Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). The name often refers to just the cancerous versions rather than all such tumors. Signs and symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, drenching sweats (most common at night), unintended weight loss, itching, and constantly feeling tired. The enlarged lymph nodes are usually painless.


Leukemia is cancer that starts in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. When one of these cells changes and becomes a leukemia cell, it no longer matures the way it should and grows out of control. Often, it divides to make new cells faster than normal. Leukemia cells also don’t die when they should. This allows them to build up in the bone marrow, crowding out normal cells. Most common type of leukemia is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).

Sickle cell disease

People with thalassemia, sickle cell disease, or other anemias that require chronic blood transfusions may accumulate too much iron in their bodies – called iron overload. Because human body has no natural way to remove the excess iron, the body stores it in internal organs and body tissues. This can cause damage to the liver, pancreas, heart and endocrine glands. In addition, iron overload negatively affects treatment outcomes.